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The text is taken from my copy of FIELDS, FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS: or Industry Combined with Agriculture and Brain Work with Manual Work, Thomas Nelson & Sons, London, Edinburgh, Dublin and New York, 1912.



Dr. G. Schulze-Gaewernitz, in his excellent work, The Cotton Trade in England and on the Continent (English translation by Oscar S. Hall, London, 1895), called attention to the fact that Germany had certainly not yet attained, in her cotton industry, the high technical level of development attained by England; but he showed also the progress realised. The cost of each yard of plain cotton, notwithstanding low wages and long hours, was still greater in Germany than in England, as seen from the following tables. Taking a certain quality of plain cotton in both countries, he gave (p. 151, German edition) the following comparative figures:-

England. Germany.
Hours of labour 9 hours 12 hours
Average weekly earnings of the operatives 16s. 3d. 11s. 8d.
Yards woven per week per opera tive 706 yards 466 yards
Cost per yard of cotton 0.275d. 0.303d.

But he remarked also that in all sorts of printed cottons, in which fancy, colours and invention play a predominant part, the advantages were entirely on the side of the smaller German factories.

In the spinning mills the advantages, on the contrary, continued to remain entirely on the side of England, the number of operatives per 1,000 spindles being in various countries as follows (p. 91, English edition):-

Per 1000 spindles.
Bombay 25 operatives.
Italy 13 "
Alsace 9.5 "
Mulhouse 7.5 "
Germany, 1861 20 "
" 1882 8 to 9 "
England, 1837 7 "
" 1887 3 "

Considerable improvements had taken place already in the ten years 1884-1894. "India shows us, since 1884, extraordinary developments," Schulze-Gaewernitz remarked, and "there is no doubt that Germany also has reduced the number of operatives per 1,000 spindles since the last Inquest." "From a great quantity of materials lying before me, I cull," he wrote, " the following, which, however, refers solely to leading and technicallay distinguished spinning mills :-

Per 1000 spindles.
Switzerland 6-2 operatives
Mulhouse 5-8 "
Baden and Wurtemberg 6-2 "
Bavaria 6-8 "
Saxony (new and splendid mills) 7-2 "
Vosges, France (old spinning mills) 8-9 "
Russia 16-6 "

The average counts of yarn for all these were between twenties and thirties."

It is evident that considerable progress has been realised since Schulze-Gaewernitz wrote these lines. As an exporter of cotton yarn and cottons, Germany has made rapid strides. Thus, in 1903, she exported £1,625,000 worth of cotton yarn, and £15,080,000 worth of cottons. For 1910 the figures given by the Statistisches Jahrbuch for 1911 were already £2,740,000 and £18,255,000 respectively.


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