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The Cynosure

  Michael Bakunin
  William Godwin
  Emma Goldman
  Peter Kropotkin
  Errico Malatesta
  Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
  Max Stirner
  Murray Bookchin
  Noam Chomsky
  Bright but Lesser Lights
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  Anarchist History
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  First International
  Paris Commune
  Haymarket Massacre
  Spanish Civil War

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those branches in which, side by side with individual labor, there would also be found individual possession, as is the case in many forms of extractive industry and particularly in farming, would not be considered ripe for communication. Here the path to be followed in the transition to communism is directly opposite to the course to be steered in the manufacturing and service industries. In the latter, the transition would follow this road: from collective labor through collective possession to communism, whereas in the extractive industries, the collectivization of possession ought to be established first, and once this had been done, the transition towards collective labor could begin.

Socialization of possession is a revolutionary act, involving violence, and its success depends on the use of force, whereas the socialization of labor is a process, which demands for its unfolding the presence of both favorable circumstances and correct timing. Social revolutions, therefore, can immediately introduce the collectivization of possessions in the whole country, but cannot effect the collectivization of Labor. Yet collectivization of Labor is virtually the basis of communism, which is impossible without it.

In consequence of this indisputable fact, society on the day after the social revolution would have to reckon with two basic economic systems which in principle are mutually hostile: a communist and an individualist system -- as well as an intermediate and transitional system, the co-operatives. Society would have to establish a form of relationship with the individualist economy which would favor the latter's speedy and painless dissolution in communism. The system of the transitional period would therefore be characterized by Economic Dualism; that is to say, a coexistence of communism and individualism, the former, however, taking over the commanding positions. From the standpoint my view of society in the transitional period is as follows.


The System of Communist Economy. All the branches of industry where labor has already been socialized by capitalism would be syndicalized; that is, they would pass into the hands of labor organization, united from below on productive industrial lines upon the principle of Federalism, thus allowing full administrative autonomy to each link in the organizational chain. Furthermore, syndicalized industry would be built on the basis of Communist Industrial Relations.

All manufacturing industry would be subject to syndicalization, with the exception of the handicraft and domestic

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