I. Internet Basics
  A.  Handling Email
    a.  Finding email 
	b.  LISTSERV & 
	c.  Attachments
  C. Gopher
  D. FTP
  E. Telnet
  G. WWW
II.  Experiments 
  A.  Surveys on the Internet
  B.  Experiments
  C.  Search Engines and 
III.  Teaching
  A.  Online syllabi
  B.  Content-Based Approach 
  	  to Internet Literacy
  C.  Online test taking
  D.  Multimedia conferencing
	1. Simulations
		a. Conflict resolution
		b. Committee decision-making
		c. Intergroup dynamics
*You might find the online dictionary of computing terms helpful while reading this document:

InternetInternet basics

The single most useful Internet tool for academic purposes is
email. Email keeps you in touch with colleagues and students, brings an unending stream of information from LISTSERV groups, and allows researchers to exchange documents and data. This section of the workshop will focus primarily upon document and data exchange. The University of Wales Cardiff has produced a general introduction to email useful for novice emailers. Patrick Crispin's discussion of email addresses in his Roadmap series is also helpful.

It is almost impossible to treat email generically. Each system is
sufficiently different that you really need to talk to your computing service providers, read the documentation for your email system, and then spend time poking around the program experimenting with the different commands. What I will try to do here is run through some of the basics for the common freeware systems,[1] focusing primarily upon the use of attachments.



Most major email applications have online help. The system I
use and which is available on many campuses with a unix server is the University of Washington's Pine: Program for Internet News & Email. Their "User Guide" and the "Secrets of Pine" are quite useful.

* The Pine online information center can be found here.

* An alternative guide is put out by the University of Michigan


One of the most common email programs for both MAC and IBM
users is Pegasus, or Pmail. Part of Pegasus's popularity is that it is a free program. It has a reputation for being a little "buggy", but not so "buggy" as to be a real problem. The printed manual for Pegasus costs $35, but using Pegasus is so straight forward that a manual is really unnecessary.[2] There is a Pegasus Homepage which provides some information, although there are other more useful sites for learning about Pegasus. The University of Wales Cardiff has very good documentation for both DOS and Windows versions of Pegasus, and there is a gopher site which covers the whole gambit of computer platforms.

* Online Pegasus help for DOS can be found here.

* Online Pegasus help for Windows can be found here.

* The Pegasus gopher site, complete with FAQ's, here.


Eudora is the principle alternative to Pegasus. The Eudora
Homepage has information about its "Lite" freeware version as well as their "Pro" version. They have a manual you can download or there are other online manuals listed below.

* Staffordshire University's online manual

Three MAC specific guides are at:

* The University of Alberta


* The University of Illinois.


* Andrew Starr's Amherst site.

Windows specific guides are at:

* The University of Alberta.

and at

* Andrew Starr's Amherst site


A variety of search engines for email, postal, and telephone
information can be found on my "Web Connections". Patrick Crispin provides alternative ways to find people on the net in lesson 25 of his Roadmap series. A very good FAQ style source for learning how to find email address is located at the University of Delaware. To learn how to access gopher sites, see the Gopher section below.


The best place to go for instruction on LISTSERV and lists is
the same place Patrick Crispin went for his Roadmap lesson: The University of St. Louis, where James Milles has put together the definitive instructions. Need I say more? Well, you could also check out Crispin's lessons two, five and six which include a few additional helpful tidbits.


There are three things to keep in mind when sending
attachments in any system, and one skill necessary for detaching in any system. First, if formatting of the text is important, be sure to save the text in RTF (rich text format). That is an option in the "Save As" dialog box in most word processing applications. For example, here is what it looks like in Microsoft Word after selecting RTF from the scroll down menu:
save in rtf
RTF will retain almost all formatting so the document will appear as you intended it to appear. Second, if you are sending a large document or an application, it is best to compact the attachment using a utility such as Stuffit-Lite (Download a MAC version here) or Compact Pro (Download a MAC version here). Third, make life easy for the recipient. Specify in your message what the original document is, e.g. a Word 5.0 RTF file, what platform it was created on, i.e. MAC, IBM, etc., and how it was encoded, e.g., binhexed, uuencoded, zip. etc. Of course, some information will be in the file extensions or at the head of the document, but it is always easier on the recipient if you provide as much information as possible in your message.

When you are on the receiving end of an attachment, you will
appreciate any information the sender provides about the attachment. Even if all you get is a blank message with an attachment, there are ways to get hints about the attachment's code and format. If you try to open the saved message in Microsoft Word or BBedit, often the first line will tell you how the message has been encoded, or if there is an extension on the attachment file it should tell you how the attachment has been coded. Once you know how the message is encoded it is a simple matter to pick the right utility to unencode it. For example, if the extension is ".hqx", it has been BINHEXED and CompactPro will work. If the extension is ".sit", Stuffit has been used to compact the file and Stuffit Expander (Download a copy here) will decode it. If the attachment has a ".ps" on the end, use DropOffPS which will send the file to your printer (Download a copy here). If it is uuencoded, use UUlite (Download a copy here). Gzip is a UNIX compressor and if you are on a MAC, MacGzip (Download a copy here) should handle the file. Likewise, Macintosh Tar will read .tar files if you can find a copy, or use DropStuff with expander enhancer (Download a copy here). A MAC user receiving a .zip file can decode with Unzip 5.0 or use the DropStuff with expander enhancer mentioned previously. If it is a binary file, i.e. .bin, drag the file onto MacBinary II+ (Download a copy here). Most servers will have a utility file with several varieties. If all else fails, run down the list using each one until one works! With a little practice you become familiar with utilities quickly. They are very handy to have around.

Detaching in PINE: Dealing with attachments in PINE can
be a little tricky. If it is a MIME attachment (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), you're in luck: Open the message and type "v", for "view". A list of attachments appear, you select the attachment you want to view, press return and there it is. You can save the attachment to a folder in your mail program, or, if you want the attachment in some other folder, type in the full path to the directory where you want the attachment saved. Press "s" to save and then on the command line type in the folder where you want to save the attachment or the full path to another directory in your UNIX home.

If you read your mail by telneting to a UNIX machine and want
to save the attachment on your LAN (local area network), simply save the message to your UNIX home then drag it to your desktop. Once on your desktop, if it is a text document, you should be able to open it with any word processing application or even BBedit.

Often, attachments come compacted or in some form PINE
cannot view. In that case, either check with your system administrator to make sure PINE is properly configured, or if the attachment has an extension (suffix) such as ".hqx", "bin", "sea", ".tar", ".ps", ".zip", etc., then save it to your UNIX home. To do this, be sure you are in the viewer, highlight the attachment you want and type "s". In the command line, give the attachment a name and press return. The attachment will be in your UNIX home. Next, open your UNIX home and drag the message to your desktop. Once on your desktop use a program such as Compact Pro, Stuffit Expander, DropPS, MacGzip, MacbinaryII+, etc. to render the message or application into a usable form.

Attaching in Pine: Attaching documents is much easier
than detaching. Here are the instructions from the PINE online manual:

"The attach file command: Ctrl-J (with the cursor located in the header area of the message composition screen) is the primary means of attaching an external file as a MIME attachment. The attachment will be encoded to ensure safe delivery at the receiving end, which means that you can attach any type of file: ...However, the recipient of your message needs to have email software capable (more and more are) of handling MIME attachments.

"The file to be attached must be on the same system as Pine.

If you use Pine on a Unix machine but have files on a PC or Macintosh, the files must be transferred to the Unix system running Pine before they can be attached to the message being composed. Please ask your local consultants about the correct way to transfer a file to your Pine system as the method will vary from site to site."

Detaching in Pegasus: As long as the attachment is in a
readable form all you need to do to read an attachment is either highlight the message in the message folder or open the message, and in either case click "Attachments". Pegasus will open the attachment just like it opens an email message.

If the attachment is encoded in a format Pegasus does not
recognize you need to export/save the message to your desktop or a folder in your users file. Once the message is saved you will need to use a utility to unencode it. (See the second paragraph of the Attachments section for more information.)

Attaching in Pegasus: This is truly simple. Here is what
the Pegasus manual tells you to do:

"Add attachments to messages using the 'Attachments' button in the message editing window. By default, Pegasus Mail tries to choose the most appropriate way to send your attachment for you, but you can force Pegasus Mail to send an attachment in uuencoded form, BinHexed form or as plain ASCII using the popup menus in the attachment dialog. Up to 64 attachments can be sent with a message. The 'Change' button in the attachment dialog allows you to alter the encoding and file type of any attachment you have already added to the list."

You would want to "force" Pegasus to send the attachment in a specified form if you know what platform the recipient is using. In that case, be sure you send the attachment in the most compatible form. If you don't know either the platform or the best form to send attachments to the platform, don't be afraid to ask the intended recipient.

Detaching in Eudora: The first time you receive an
attachment Eudora creates a folder called "Attachments Folder." You can also specify a folder for attachments. The "Attachments Folder" is in the Eudora Folder within your System Folder, and all arriving attachments are placed there. You can open the attachment from that folder just as you would any other file.

Attaching in Eudora:To send an attachment, you must
first have an email message open, either a new message, reply, or forward. From the menu bar, select "Message" and pull down to "Attach Document" (Command H will also work). From the dialog box, locate the document you want to attach and when it is highlighted, click "Open". The document will then be attached. A text document will be attached as text, just as if you typed it in to a regular email message. Otherwise it will be encoded according to the preferences you select in the "Settings" menu. If the recipient uses Eudora, the attachment will be processed automatically and placed in the attachment folder. Otherwise the attachment is at the end of the message in the format selected under the Settings menu.


If you were to type USENET into the search form at the free
online dictionary of computer terms (FLODOC), you would find that USENET is the largest decentralized information utility in existence--not bad for a teenager (USENET was created in 1979 - 1980 by Steve Bellovin, Jim Ellis, Tom Truscott, and Steve Daniel at Duke University). It is a bulletin board system with over 1,200 newsgroups, or just groups, covering every imaginable topic, including those that make university administrators nervous. This is also where you find feeds from the major news wire services and can find information on just about any aspect of computing. You can merely lurk (read the posts), or you can jump "write" in to the discussion by posting to the bulletin board.

Patrick Crispen's Roadmap contains an excellent discussion of
USENET that covers the material far better than I can. Check out lesson eight. To access USENET you need to contact your systems person and find out which newsreader to use. After that, it's pretty easy.


Gopher is a document retrieval system that once was a
mainstay of the Internet but is now being superseded by the World Wide Web (WWW). Some documents and records contained on gopher servers are being marked up for WWW access, but a great deal of material remains only at gopher sites. Most Web browsers will access gopher sites without a hitch, or it is possible to use gopher software to retrieve material. If you have a Web browser, gopher software such as TurboGopher (Download a copy here), or a direct gopher command from your office terminal, visit the University of Minnesota's gopher site for more discussion and a romp around the place where gophering started. Naturally, Patrick Crispen also has a lesson or two on the art of the gopher. Indeed, he even tells you how to use GopherMail, i.e., access a gopher site via email. But a more extended discussion is "Let's Go Gophering", more than twenty-seven lessons written by Richard J. Smith and Jim Gerland. There are a variety of tools used to search "Gopherspace", including Veronica and Jughead, which can be found on the search engines page of my "Web Connections"


File Transfer Protocol (FTP) allows the transfer of files and data
between computers at different sites on the Internet. Like gophering, FTPing has been fully integrated into the WWW. FTP can be implemented as a link on the WWW, as a command from your office terminal, or from your personal computer using FTP software such as FETCH (Download a copy here). If all you have is email or you already have a crowded screen and don't want to open another program, you can also FTP via email. Crispin has four sessions on FTP[3] covering all these methods and FLODOC has a good entry on "anonymous ftp". If you want to take full advantage of new software and updates to old software get friendly with FTPing---it's the simplest, fastest, most efficient way to build a software library. FTPing is also essential for sabbaticals. Using FTP, all the files you left home and suddenly need and all the files you create while away and will want back home can be easily moved back and forth from your home institution to your sabbatical site and vice versa. You can search FTP archives using "Archie", which can also be accessed from my Web connections search engines mentioned above, and from the ISPP's Homepage. Lesson 17 of Crispin's Internet Roadmap deals with using archie.


Telnet allows you to log on to a remote computer and access
the files and resources on that computer. Most Web browsers include telnet helper applications or ways to configure the browser to act as a telnet application. A great resource for telnet sites can be found on the WWW at various Hytelenet sites, including a helpful set of telneting tips. Just like gophers and ftp systems, you can also telnet via a line command from your office terminal, or use telnet software on your personal computer (Download a copy of NCSA Telent at these sites[4]). Essentially, telnet is a terminal emulation system that transforms your personal keyboard into a keyboard linked to the remote computer. And if you thought the Internet Roadmap would have lessons on Telneting, you were right. (Actually, there are two!


Wide Area Information Search is a "key word" information
retrevial system. The search returns a list of documents, ranked according to the frequency of the keyword(s) used in the search. Accessing WAIS can be done either from your terminal or using software on your personal computer and accessing the net via TCP/IP connections. The easiest way to access WAIS now is via a WWW browser. Like just about everything else, the Web has absorbed WAIS; you can explore WAIS resources using a Web browser to view a gopher menu listing searachable WAIS databases.


Perhaps by now you've detected a theme: "The Web is where
it's at on the Internet." Web browsers available today are configured to incorporate everything we have discussed so far. You can email, access newsgroups, ftp, gopher, telnet, in short, do everything on the Internet via the WWW, well, almost everything. It still helps to know how to function inside each of the separate components of the Internet, but the WWW is casting a rather large shadow over its predecessors. Check out what Crispen has to say about the WWW in lesson 23 and lesson 24, read FOLDOC's blurb, study the WWW FAQ, peruse John December's article[5], grab copies of Netscape[6] and BBedit-Lite,[7] and let's start spinning. Of course, first you might want to check out resources on writing html,[8] and take a little introductory course from Case Western Reserve University.

If you'd rather explore at bit first, here is a site with links
organized by Internet systems, e.g., USENET, GOPHER, WAIS, and WWW.

Go to Section II: Experiments and Researchforward arrow

Go to Section III: Teachingforward arrow

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