Version 2.1, Revised March 1995

Prepared by Ron Corio (rcorio@cabell.vcu.edu)
Maggi Sokolik (msokolik@uclink.berkeley.edu)
With the assistance of Abraham Lee

Adapted from:

American Psychological Association. (1994). _Publication manual
of the American Psychological Association (4th. Ed.)._ Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Li, X. & Crane, N.B. (1993). _Electronic style_. Westport, CT:
Meckler Publishing
Note: The following is not a complete listing. If you have a reference or citation that does not fit the examples given here, please consult one of the reference works above. If you do not have access to them, contact one of the authors of this file.

Also note that the 4th Edition of the APA publication manual has the potential to be a little confusing. The APA distinguishes between manuscript format and publication format. For _TESL-EJ_, please use the publication format, that is, the hanging indent format


Include a reference list (headed "References") at the end of the TESL-EJ article that documents your sources and provides the necessary information to identify and retrieve each source. References must include only the sources that were used in the research and preparation of the article. A reference list cites specific works that support a particular article. A bibliography cites works for background or for further reading. APA journal style requires reference lists, not bibliographies.

Because of the limitations of ASCII, certain typograpical features cannot be displayed on screen. Underscoring should be indicated by typing an underscore mark before and after the segment of text to be italicized or underlined. Example:

...in the journal _Language Learning_,

Diacritical marking, such as umlauts or accent marks, should be omitted. If the omission of these marks creates ambiguity or possible misinterpretation, this can be clarified via a footnote or parenthetical explanation.

Please note that the examples used in this document are for illustration only, and should not be used for actual citations. Many are fictional or partly fictional. Check all your sources carefully.


Citation within the text of a document refers the reader to an alphabetical reference list at the end of the article. APA format uses the author-date method of citation. The surname of the author and the date of publication are inserted at the appropriate point in the text.

A. One work by single author

1. If the name of the author appears in the text, cite only the year of publication in the text. Do not include suffixes such as _Jr._
Shannon's (1989) historical analysis....

2. Otherwise, place the surname of the author and the year of publication with a comma separating the two.
...lead to successful language learning (Chaudron, 1988).

3. Within a paragraph you need not repeat the references to an author's work as long as it cannot be confused with other work cited in the article.

B. One work by two or more authors

1. When a work has two authors, always use the surnames of both authors in all citations. Join the two names by an ampersand (&) within parentheses, or by "and" within the text.

...or simply ignore it (Hill & Parry, 1988).

2. When a work has 3-6 authors, use the surnames of all authors in the first citation. In subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al."

...process the text hierarchically (Armbruster, Anderson & Ostertag, 1984)....

3. When a work has more than six authors, use only the surname of the first author followed by "et al."

...on a test with exclusively open-ended questions (Pollit et al., 1985).

C. Works with no authors

When a work has no author, cite the first two or three words of the reference list entry followed by the year. The first entry is usually the title. Underline the title of a periodical or book and use double quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter.

...on language use ("World languages," 1992).

... in the book (_Language Use_, 1991).

D. Specific parts of a source

To cite a specific part of a source, include the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation in the citation. The words "page" and "chapter" are abbreviated in such citations (see Abbreviations).
...and rewriting what is read (Freire, 1983, p. 11).


chap. chapter
ed. edition
Rev. ed. revised edition
2nd ed. second edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
Trans. Translator(s)
p. (pp.) page (pages)
Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4)
vols. volumes (as in four volumes)
No. Number
Pt. Part
Tech. Rep. Technical Report
Suppl. Supplement
Geographical abbreviations: For the U.S., states and territories in the reference list should use the official two-letter U.S.P.S. abbreviation. City names and country names should not be abbreviated.

E. Personal communications

Letters, memos, telephone conversations, etc. are not included in the Reference List, thus are cited in the text only. Include the initials as well as the surname of the author and provide as exact a date as possible.
...according to D.B. Cooper (personal communication, April 15, 1969).

F. References in parenthetical material

If a reference appears within parentheses, use commas (not brackets) to set off the date.
...the second level (see Figure 1 of Cowell & Ross, 1992, for full explanation.)


A. Complete reference list

The reference list should be in alphabetical order by author's surnames. With names including "de", "von", etc., those names should be alphabetized according to the rules of the language from which they originate. Each entry should be indented five spaces from the second line forward, and there should be a blank line between entries.

B. APA style

	1.  Periodicals

Doyle, W. (1977). Learning the classroom environment: An
ecological analysis. _Journal of Teacher Education,
28_, 51-55.

2. Books

a. Entire books

Bishop, A. J. , & Whitfield, R. C. (1982). _Situations in
teaching_. London: McGraw-Hill.

b. Article or chapter within a book

Heath, S. B. (1989). The learner as culture member, In M.
L. Rice & R. L. Schiefelbusch (Eds.), _The teachability
of language_ (pp. 333-350). Toronto: Paul H. Brookes.

3. Technical and research reports

Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language
development in promoting educational success for
language minority students. In California State
Department of Education (Ed.), _Schooling and language
minority students: A theoretical framework_. Los
Angeles: California State University, Evaluation,
Dissemination, and Assessment Center.

4. Proceedings of Meetings and Symposiums

Olson, D. R., & Hildyard, A. (1980). _Literacy and the
comprehension of literal meaning_. Paper presented at
the Conference on the Development and Use of Writing
Systems, Biefefeld, Germany.

5. Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

Besnier, N. (1986). _Spoken and written registers in a
restricted-literacy setting_. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, University of Southern California, Los

6. Unpublished Manuscripts and Publications of Limited Circulation

Parry, J. (1982). _Popular attitudes towards Hindu
religious texts_. Unpublished manuscript.

7. Translations and Non-English Text


Freud, S. (1920). _A general introduction to psychoanalysis_
(J. Riviere, Trans.). New York: Pocket Books.

Non-English Text:

Raynaud de Lage, G. (1975). _Introduction a l'ancien francais_
(9e ed.). [_Introduction to Old French_ (9th ed.)].
Paris: Societe d'Edition d'Enseignement Superieur.

8. Reviews and Interviews

Reviews should indicate the medium (book, film, etc.) being reviewed within the bracketed information.

Book review:

Rea, P.M. (1984). [Review of the book _Issues in Language Testing_
by Charles Alderson and Arthur Hughes, Eds.]. _Language
Learning 34, 3_, 175-188.

Published interview:

Smith, D. (1990). [Interview with Wu Leong]. _English
Yesterday 10, 5_, 57-90.

9. Nonprint Media


Kirosawa, A. (Director & Producer). (1970). _Dodes 'kaden_
[Film]. Tokyo: Films Ltd.

Audio Recording:

Carter, B. (Speaker). (1977). _The growth of English_
(Cassette Recording No. 222). New York: Audio

10. Electronic Media

Computer Programs:

Sandford, J.A. & Browne, R.J. (1985). Captain's log:
Cognitive Training System (Version 1.0) [Computer
program]. Indianapolis: Psychological Software
Services, Inc.

Online databases:

_The educational directory_ [Online]. (1992). Available:
Knoledge Index File: The Educational Directory (EDUC6).

Abstract on CD-ROM

Author, I. (date.) Title of article [CD-ROM]. _Title of Journal,
xx_, xx-xx. Abstract from: Source and retrieval number.

FTP, Telnet, Gopher, WWW

The general format for online information is, where 'xx' indicates volume or issue number:

Author, I. (date). Title of article. _Name of Periodical_
[On-line serial], _xx_. Available: Specify path (or url).

The path should indicate via what retrieval method the information is available. For example:

Available: Anonymous FTP: princeton.edu Directory: pub/harnad File: Sample.txt

For an article available from a Listserv, use the following citation format

Available: E-mail: listserv@cmsa.berkeley.edu Message: Get TESLEJ-L APAGUIDE

To cite personal E-mail messages:

General format:

Author (Year, month day). _Subject of message_
[E-mail to receiver's name], [Online].
Available E-mail: receiver's E-mail address.


Corio, R. (1994, June 1). _APA Guide deadline_
[e-mail to Margaret E. Sokolik],
[Online]. Available e-mail: