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Pioneers of Anti-Parlimentarism
by Guy A. Aldred

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and Cafiero escaped the peasants mistrusted them. at last the insurrection became a fact. Twenty-eight people in all revolted, burned the official records, and distributed the goods they had confiscated among the common people. Of course they were surrounded by military and arrested. they remained in preventive imprisonment - that is imprisonment prior to being charged - At Capua, Malatesta's birthplace for one year. The death of Victor Emmanuel I, caused political changes in April, 1878. They were rearrested and indicted for the manslaughter of two gendarmes who had met their death during the insurrection. They were brought to trial in August, 1878, but the jury acquitted them after a week's hearing. During this imprisonment Cafiero wrote his abbreviation of Marx's "Capital". Malatesta explained to Nettlau at a later date that they all, Bakunin included, theoretically fully accepted the criticism that Marx applied to the Capitalist system and were enthusiastic Marxists.

After the trial Malatesta spent a month at Naples and then travelled to Egypt. After Passante's attempt on the life of King Umberto, he was arrested Parini and Alvino and transported to Beyrout in Syria. Here he was released, it being understood that he would return to Italy. Instead he worked his way from port to port on a French ship and finally arrived safe at Marseille. The captain of the vessel refused to hand him over to the Italian authorities although they demanded this at Smyrna, Castellmare, and Leghorn. From Marseille he travelled to Geneva and assisted at the foudning of Kropotkin's paper, the Revolte. this was in February, 1878. With other Anarchists he was now perpetually expelled from Switzerland, although he subsequently returned there despite this expulsion. He went to Rumania and here found employment but was compelled to leave owing to fever. He returned to Paris and assisted in the development of the Anarchist movement which had been initiated there in 1877 by some French Anarchist Internationalists who had got in touch with Andrea Costa. Costa was arrested and imprisoned, where his ideas underwent a change on the subject of parliamentary. Cafiero and Malatesta were expelled from France for Anarchism in 1880. Under a false passport Malatesta travelled to London via Switzerland. He returned to Paris and was sentenced to four and a half months solitary confinement.

On his release Malatesta went to Brussels. here he challenged Paul Lafarge to a duel because Lafarge had attacked the Spanish Anarchists including Morago. Many of the Spanish comrades had died in struggle and others with were in prison. when one considers how the Spanish Anarchists have struggled down the years for freedom in Spain; when one remembers that during the time German and Austrian Social Democrats were pursuing their useless parliamentary fancies the Spanish Anarchists were being jailed and murdered for their cause; and when one realises that when at last the Austrian Social Democrats were driven by circum-

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