the Civil War ended the toilers found themselves bound and gagged. They failed to protest energetically enough at the right time against the throttling of liberty, against the imposition of restriction, against all regimentations and terrorism. Because all these restrictions seemed to be necessary for the defense of the Revolutionary conquests, the toilers watched in silence the replacement of federalization by centralization, free activity by control from above. The result was that they even lost the conquests they had made during Tsarism. Thus state socialism masked in ethical purposes but pursuing an unethical path, destroyed the people's revolution which pursued liberty and economic equality, and had begun to build institutions on this basis. This betrayal of the Russian Revolution had and continues to have a tremendous retarding effect on the international workers' movement.
The revealed despotic character of state communism, Marxism, caused a reaction in the proletarian movement and brought about world Fascism in politics. It plunged Russia into a reaction unprecedented in history. It converted the country into an immense prison and set Russia back to the times of feudalism and serfdom. All that was gained through long centuries of bitter struggle and great sacrifices with church, feudalism, serfdom, absolutism and state democracy was destroyed by Marxian state communism. It has taken from the people all those elements without which progress and a creative movement is impossible.
How did it happen that the Revolution was transformed into its anti-thesis, reaction? We have partially answered this question in the previous pages, but for a more complete, convincing and basic answer we must analyze the pre-October promises of Lenin and his party, and see to what extent, if at all, these promises were carried out. Let us see what was promised and what given. It will be both interesting and instructive.
In making the appraisal of the situation as it now exists in the presumably Socialist Soviet Republics, we call to witness the very father of the present Russian regime and on the basis of evidence offered by him, we shall attempt to present a picture of the actualities existing under the regime of the Marxism communists.
In his work, "On the Problems of the Proletariat in the Present Revolution". (pp. 17-18, Vol. 14, Part 1) Lenin stated as follows: "Not a parliamentarian republic-a return to it from the S.W.D. would constitute a step backward-but a Republic of Soviets of workers, agricultural laborers, and peasants deputies throughout the land from below upward."
Lenin and the Bolsheviks, as we see, aimed at organizing a republic of the Soviets. All power to the Soviets! This means said Lenin when addressing the soldiers, that "all the power in the state, from below up, from the remotest village to every city block in Petrograd must belong to the Soviets of the Workers,