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Pioneers of Anti-Parlimentarism
by Guy A. Aldred

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stance to fight and die heroically for their cause at the barricades and on the streets, the Spanish Anarchists were also fighting and dying in the cause of liberty; then one's sympathies go out to Malatesta and his protest against Lafarge's insults. I do not say that one sympathizes with his idea of deulling. Quite rightly, Lafarge refused to accept the challenge. But he did not withdraw his attacks on the Spanish Anarchists. It is strange to think that, as pointed out in my essay on Bakunin, Marx was haunted at this time by imagination that his two sons-in- law, Lafarge and Longuet, were the last Anarchists, whilst both were bitterly opposed to Anarchism, and whilst the Anarchists, inspired by Bakunin and by Caifero from his prison cell were putting their hearts and souls into the taks of explaining and popularizing the work of Marx.

Following upon the Lafargue episode, Malatesta was expelled from Belgium and settled in London for about three years dating form the end of 1990. he was a delegate at an International Revolutionary Congress which was convened in the summer of 1881. here he associated with Kropotkin, Merlino, John Lane and Frank Kitz. In 1882 the death of Garibaldi caused Malatesta to publish his first signed article in Lothrop Withington's Democratic Review. With him in exile was Cafiero. Malatesta witnessed the total decline of the latter's intellect and his passage into imbecility and lunacy.

In the Grido del Popolo of July 21st, 1881, Cafiero published a letter charging Costa with ambition, vanity, and hypocrisy for his parliamentary intrigues and repudiation of Anarchism. He collected materials for the biography of Bakuinin and mislaid most valuable documents. He prepared the publication of "god and the State" with Elisee Reclus, and this edition was published from Geneva in 1882. He also put before Malatesta, Ceccarelli and other Anarchists the outlines of a plan of parliamentary tactics whereby the Anarchist and Socialists could unite for the development of the revolutionary movement without compromise and without resorting to any further abortive attempts to insurrection or abortive propaganda by deed. Although his Anarchist comrades were against him at this point, Cafiero declined to be turned from his purpose. He left London in March, 1882, and proceeded to Milan where he published the letter proclaiming his policy on October 27th, 1882. He was unable to defend his ideas in discussion because soon after he became insane and was placed in asylum. After several months of horror here the Italian authorities decided to release him and to conduct him to the Swiss frontier. They were anxious that an Anarchist should not die in asylum in case they should be suspected of maltreating him. At the Swiss frontier he tried to commit suicide but was saved by his comrades and underwent treatment at the hands of Bakunin's Tessinese friend, E. Bellerio. He recovered slightly but refused to stay outside of Italy. On February 13th, 1883, he was again

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